If you aren't hearing back after you've applied for a job, these may be the reasons why.

People often wonder why they never hear back after they've hit “send” on the email with their resume attached or after they've submitted an on-line job application. If you're very lucky, you might have a preliminary email exchange with a recruiter — and then never hear from them again.

It's a depressing experience, and one which also casts a shadow on the hiring company's reputation. So why does it happen? Is it you, is it them, or is it just something every candidate must prepare for in the hiring process?

An oft-cited recruiter complaint is that as many as 50 percent of people applying for a given job simply aren't qualified. Adding to the challenge, most large companies —  and many smaller ones — use talent-management software to screen resumes, weeding out up to 50 percent of applicants before a human even looks at a resume or cover letter. The deck is definitely stacked against the job seeker. So how do you breakthrough?

Here are the top five reasons you're not hearing back after applying for a job, with five suggestions for ways to avoid the resume black hole.

1. You really aren't qualified 

If a job description specifies a software developer with three to five years of experience and you're a recent graduate with one internship, it's unlikely you'll get a call. Avoid disappointment by not applying for jobs where you lack qualifications. Most job descriptions are written with very specific requirements. Yes, the company is trying to find the most qualified candidate, while also trying to weed people out. It's not personal — it's business.

2. You haven't keyword optimized your resume or application 

Job descriptions are salted with keywords specific to the skills or attributes the company seeks in applicants. A close read of the job description is a necessity, as is keyword optimizing your resume, cover letter (if you're using one), or email. If the job description lists words in a certain order, like a list of programming languages required, use the same order in your resume.

3. Your resume isn't formatted properly 

You might think distinctive formatting will set your resume apart, but automated programs don't care if a document is pretty. Help a machine out; be consistent in formatting and consider using separate lines for former employer, job title, and years worked.

4. Your resume is substantially different from your online profile 

LinkedIn, Dice, and other online profile sites can be useful tools, so it's important to make sure they match what's on your resume. This may seem to be a contradiction since I advised keyword optimization, but it's really common sense. Jobs worked, employers, years on the job, and other details should match. The subtext here is to be consistent and accurate.

5. The company received 500 resumes for one job posting — and yours was 499th 

Looking for a job is a job. Do your research — know which companies and organizations you want to work for where you have a sense of culture fit. Every morning scour the job postings and jump on anything for which you're qualified and in which you're interested. 

Being early with your resume or application does matter. Check back often in the first few days to make sure the listing hasn't changed. Often a company will post a job and halfway through the process change the description.

It's hard to game the system. Your best bet is still a personal referral, and even that may not be enough to get a call. A guy I know gave his resume to a woman who worked at a company where his friend worked and a good job had been posted. He received an automated email noting his resume had been received, but never heard another word. 

After a month he asked his friend to check with the recruiter. It turned out the job description had changed, but the recruiter never bothered to let the referring employee — or the applicant — know. This isn't unusual, unfortunately. So what can you do?

How You Can Get Noticed:

1. Research interesting companies on social media 

Find out who the recruiters are and follow them. Many will tweet new postings, so watch their streams and jump on anything for which you are qualified. If they post news about the company's great quarter, share the news with a positive comment.

2. Consider starting a blog in your area of interest or expertise 

It's a social world; time to build a trail of breadcrumbs leading to you. Include the blog, and links to any especially relevant posts, in your emails to recruiters with whom you're working.

3. Get professional help with your resume

Either a resume writer or an SEO expert can help you increase your odds of getting through the talent-management software. If you can't afford this step, read the top career blogs for advice.

4. Don't wait until you're out of work to find your next job 

I realize for many people this isn't possible or might even be offensive, but your chances of finding the next job are best when you're still employed.

5. Network 

Old advice, but still true. Be visible, be upbeat, and be informed about industry trends and news in your area of expertise.

Finding a job is tough, no question. I've talked to other recruiters who say they only respond to 30 percent of applicants. The odds are good you'll be in the 60+ percent who hears nothing a lot of the time. Don't take it personally — it's not a rejection of you, it's a reflection of the times. If you don't hear back, know you're not alone.

One way to make sure you hear back from recruiters and hiring managers? Checking to ensure that your resume is the best it can be. Submit for a free review today

Editor's Note: This article was originally written by Meghan M. Biro for Glassdoor. It has been reprinted with permission.

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